Additionally, frost is sporadic in the Lowveld, occurring every few years in lower altitude areas that have cold air drainage and strong inversions.
One of these is the Bond's springbok Antidorcas bondi ; the presence of this species suggests that the residents of Border Cave preferred open vegetational settings.
The camp will be operated by the local Mngomezulu community, who will also guide visitors to the cave — which overlooks a metre sheer drop into Swaziland — for a modest fee.
His excavations brought several human bone fragments to light — they were examined by renowned paleoanthropologist Prof Raymond Dart. Studies were conducted to understand people in the Middle Stone Age and Early Late Stone Age through animal bones and vegetation that they brought back to the site.
The child skeleton is stored in the Wits Medical School archives in Johannesburg. Analyzing these artifacts confirms that the use of large ostrich egg shells, which were a typical San cultural personal ornament, dates back 45 kya by a number of African sites.
A wooden poison applicator retains residues of ricinoleic acid, derived from poisonous castor beans. Another important find was the year-old Lebombo bone, which is a piece of baboon fibula with 29 notches cut into it, and which is taken as the earliest known evidence of the emergence of a counting system.
Animal bones found at the cave indicate that these prehistoric inhabitants lived on bushpig, warthog, zebra and buffalo. The adult human skull is confidently associated with the lithic industry.
In the earliest period, the highest-rainfall miombo occurred. The two human remains consisted of the partial cranium of an adult of approximately thirty years and the skeleton of an infant of about three months.
It is reached by a rough dirt road and is some m below the mountain top, with a m drop into Swaziland. Already in place is an interpretive centre featuring dioramas and models that tell the story of pre-historic human existence at the cave, as well as of archaeological excavations since the s.