On September 3,nine black students, known as the Little Rock Ninearrived at Central High School to begin classes but were instead met by the Arkansas National Guard on order of Governor Orval Faubus and a screaming, threatening mob. Philip Randolph who had initiated the ideathe heads of the five key civil rights organizations, plus longtime activist Bayard Rustin.
Approved by the 40th Congress — as S.
It exposed the New York Representative to greater press scrutiny. He also knew that racial discrimination in the United States, particularly highly public displays of violence and terror against racial minorities, embarrassed America internationally.
This marked the first time in its history that the Senate voted to end debate on a civil rights bill. House Democrats were unable to attract support for a fair housing bill in the summer of A year later, the Civil Rights Act of —again significantly weakened by southern opponents—extended the life of the CCR and stipulated that voting and registration records in federal elections must be preserved.
Kennedy proposed the initial civil rights act. Commission on Civil Rights CCR and created a civil rights division in the Justice Department, but its powers to enforce voting laws and punish the disfranchisement of black voters were feeble, as the commission noted in Eisenhower intervened and ordered federal troops to escort the Little Rock Nine to and from classes at Central High.